[30], He is also attributed with having brought the cacao plant from a sacred mountain to the Toltec people, teaching the women how to make traditional drinking chocolate.[31]. Yet another version of this tale had Quetzalcoatl parting the sea and leading his followers in a march along the ocean floor. Among the Aztecs, it was related to wind, Venus, Sun, merchants, arts, crafts, knowledge, and learning. Quetzalcatl became the god of the morning and evening star, and his temple was the centre of ceremonial life in Tula. Over the West presides the White Tezcatlipoca, Quetzalcoatl, the god of light, justice, mercy and wind. Unlike the newer gods of theAztec pantheon, Quetzalcoatl shared his namesake with the feathered serpent deities of the Kiche Maya and the Yucatec Maya. The pressure of the northern immigrants brought about a social and religious revolution, with a military ruling class seizing power from the priests. Tezcatlipoca, Quetzalcoatl, Xipe Totec, and Huitzilopochtli worked together to create the earth and the first man and woman to live there. Quetzalcatl, Mayan name Kukulcn, (from Nahuatl quetzalli, tail feather of the quetzal bird [Pharomachrus mocinno], and coatl, snake), the Feathered Serpent, one of the major deities of the ancient Mexican pantheon. bank of america trustee fee schedule. According to another version, he embarked upon a raft made of snakes and disappeared beyond the eastern horizon. Quetzalcatls calendar name was Ce Acatl (One Reed). Some scholarship maintains the view that the Aztec Empire's fall may be attributed in part to the belief in Corts as the returning Quetzalcoatl, notably in works by David Carrasco (1982), H. B. Nicholson (2001 (1957)) and John Pohl (2016). I have a personal philosophy in life: If somebody else can do something that I'm doing, they should do it. As the god of learning, of writing, and of books, Quetzalcatl was particularly venerated in the calmecac, religious colleges annexed to the temples, in which the future priests and the sons of the nobility were educated. Im curious if anyone here offers that to him and what your experiences with him have been. Bird, Snake, Dog, Wind, Priest, Roadsweeper even Planet! Cult worship may have involved the ingestion of hallucinogenic mushrooms (psilocybes), considered sacred. The first century of the Toltec civilization was dominated by the Teotihuacn culture, with its inspired ideals of priestly rule and peaceful behaviour. Quezovercoatl was described as being half man, half chicken, half jaguar, half serpent, half scorpion, and half mad for a total of three homicidal maniacs.[13]. Quetzalcoatl was sometimes portrayed as a trickster god, and while his plans did not always work as intended, they did consistently benefit humanity. On the right hand side is Quetzalcoatl-Ehcatl.Tlahuizcalpantecuhtli served as patron deity of astrological knowledge and was of profound importance in religious books in the Central Highlands and Oaxaca. He had worms drill a hole in the conch, then filled the shell with bees. The third president of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, John Taylor (1808-1887), believed that Quetzalcoatl was Jesus Christ. Quetzalcoatl was often represented as the life-giving wind, with a beak or mask protruding from his face. Mythopedia. From the smoking remains rose the morning star, Venus, who is represented by Quetzalcoatl in his guise of Tlahuizcalpantecuhtli. He is featured on the left in the upper and lower panels of the page. In Nhuatl, the word Xolotl was often associated with the concept of twins and physical deformity, so statues of the deity often portray a dog with twin heads, or ragged ears and running sores. Wikipedia contributors. These tales show Quetzalcoatl as the model of good rulership and the Toltecs as the model of good society. His calendrical name was 9 Wind.Parents: The dual creator Ometeotl (Two Lord), also known as Ometecuhtli and Omecihuatl (Two Lord and Two Lady)Siblings: Tezcatlipoca and Camaxtle. Representations of a feathered snake occur as early as the Teotihuacn civilization (3rd to 8th century ce) on the central plateau. Quetzalcoatl played many roles in ancient Aztec mythology, so it's difficult to pin down just one. And over the North presides the Black Tezcatlipoca, known by no other name than Tezcatlipoca, the god of judgment, night, deceit, sorcery and the Earth. In the episode "Damnesia You," Xavier winds up in the Aztec world and is immediately (and unsuccessfully) sacrificed for insulting the Sun God, and during the sacrifice the Aztecs humorously fail to pronounce his name. [10], The earliest known documentation of the worship of a Feathered Serpent occurs in Teotihuacan in the first century BC or first century AD. Accessed June 29, 2019.https://www.britannica.com/topic/Quetzalcoatl. The mask is formed of two intertwined and looped serpents worked in contrasting colors of turquoise mosaic; one in green and one in blue that twist across the face and around the eyes, blending over the nose. Represented as the plumed serpent, Quetzalcoatl was also seen as manifest in the wind, one of the most powerful forces of nature; a text in the Nahuatl language captures this relationship: Quetzalcoatl; yn ehecatl ynteiacancauh yntlachpancauh in tlaloque, yn aoaque, yn qujqujiauhti. Latter-day Saint author Brant Gardner, after investigating the link between Quetzalcoatl and Jesus, concluded that the association amounts to nothing more than folklore. Ultimately, the legend that Moctezuma andthe Aztecs believed Cortesto be Quetzalcoatl was a just that: a legend retroactively turned into historical fact by Spanish writers. In a version of the myth, Quetzalcoatl was born by a virgin named Chimalman, to whom the god Ometeotl appeared in a dream. alan burgess climber death; why did rory leave stone love; ben wilkins swansea; executor not communicating with beneficiaries australia "[17], Quetzalcoatl also became linked with rulership and priestly office; additionally, among the Toltec, the name was used as a military title and its representation as an emblem. in History from Georgia State University. Montezuma offering incense to Quetzalcoatl. Let your friend be your guide in Quetzalcoatl's space. In theFinal Fantasyvideo game series, Quetzalcoatl was a recurring summon or creature. Read, Kay Almere and Jason J. Gonzalez. 23 - Pre Columbian Narratives. [24], According to another version of the myth, Quetzalcoatl is one of the four sons of Ometecuhtli and Omecihuatl, the four Tezcatlipocas, each of whom presided over one of the four cardinal directions. Quetzalcoatls name, which means Feathered Serpent, was derived from the Nahuatl words for thequetzal birdand coatl, meaning serpent. The water below is coupled with the fire from the leaning smoking mirror sacrifice above the head of One Hunahpu. He appears seated in Omnipotence City of the gods, where all major deities are located, during an announcement from leader of the gods, Zeus. He is chopping a tree on the upper left hand side, and on a decorated platform on the lower left hand side. [37] This speech, which has been widely referred to, has been a factor in the widespread belief that Moctezuma was addressing Corts as the returning god Quetzalcoatl. By the time the Spanish arrived in the New World, Quetzalcoatl was regarded as the god of wind, patron of priests, and inventor of calendars and books. Codex Magliabechiano, fol.61r(Click on image to enlarge), Pic 6: Designs for Quechtin, or blankets. Privacy Policy. Aztec religion, the religion followed by the Aztecs, a Nahuatl-speaking people who ruled a large empire in central and southern Mexico in the 15th and early 16th centuries. In the era following the 16th-century Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire, a number of records conflated Quetzalcoatl with Ce Acatl Topiltzin, a ruler of the mythico-historic city of Tollan. As the morning and evening star, Quetzalcatl was the symbol of death and resurrection. The ancient Maya walked and even danced on stilts, The famous obsidian Aztec jar in the form of a spider monkey. Quetzelcoatl also appeared on (Season 3) of the Animal Planet mockumentary Lost Tapes in an episode entitled "Q the Serpent God". But this was not enough for Quetzalcoatl. Meehan, Evan. In this legend, Mixcoatl shot at Chimalma for spurning his advances. Thank you all for your time, I hope you all have a great day. Cortes may have looked the part of a god, what with bearing the conical helmets of the time and arriving via wind-powered sailing vessels, but his actions soon revealed that he was not the morally upstanding Quetzalcoatl.[10]. [12] Feathered-serpent iconography is prominent at all of these sites. Moreover, Quetzalcoatl became strongly associated with the winds, specifically as a bringer of rain clouds, which was important to a society dependent on agriculture. All Rights Reserved. New York: Harper Collins Publisher, 1990. Quetzalcoatl.Encyclopdia Britannica. In poetry weeping and singing both generated noise Read our report on the 3rd London Nahuatl Study Day, Pregnancy and birth influenced Aztec human biology, A cremated example of a death whistle is rediscovered. The name of theKiche Maya deity Ququmatzmeant Quetzal Serpent while theYucatec Maya god Kukulkantranslated to the less specific Feathered Serpent.. [47], In 1971 Tony Shearer published a book called Lord of the Dawn: Quetzalcoatl and the Tree of Life, inspiring New Age followers to visit Chichen Itza at the summer solstice when dragon-shaped shadows are cast by the Kulkulcan pyramid.[48]. The saint had departed from the Roman Empire following the death of Christ, and Duran believed his travels across the sea could explain the elements of Aztec religion that mirrored Christianity. Meehan, E. (2023, January 24). At that time, maize was located on the other side of a mountain range that surrounded the Aztec homeland. The true beneficiaries of these offerings were Catholic priests, who grew wealthy and . The mighty, warlike Aztec nation existed in Mexico from 1195 to 1521. Copyright: imagesofanthropology.com(Click on image to enlarge), Pic 3: The legendary priest, Ce Acatl Topilltzin Quetzalcoatl in a blood-letting ceremony. Only flowers and fruit were laid on his altars as sacrifice. Recipes and Ramblings From Life on the Farm Mictlantecuhtli would only give the bones to Quetzalcoatl if he could create a sound by blowing into a conch shell with no holes in it. Because there were . Creation MythsQuetzalcoatl-Ehcatl and his crafty brother Tezcatlipoca were in the business of creation. Though he originated as a vegetation god, Quetzalcoatl's role in the Aztec mythos expanded over time. Codex Borbonicus fol. Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. In Aztec mythology, he was the brother of Tezcatlipoca, Huitzilopochtli and Xipe Totec. Historians debate to what degree, or whether at all, these narratives about this legendary Toltec ruler describe historical events. Quetzalcoatl remained a potent figure well after the Spanish had conquered the New World. While many were happy with Quetzalcoatls reign, his rival Tezcatlipoca was not and plotted to bring him low. Quetzalcoatl, however, had feathers and this made him an altogether different being. Vinculaba el cielo con la tierra, por eso se la asociaba tanto al . quetzalcoatl offeringslgbt friendly doctors richmond, valgbt friendly doctors richmond, va [14], The name Quetzalcoatl comes from the Nahuatl language and means "Precious serpent" or "Quetzal-feathered Serpent". During the epi-classic period, a dramatic spread of feathered serpent iconography is evidenced throughout Mesoamerica, and during this period images begin to figure prominently at sites such as Chichn Itz, El Tajn, and throughout the Maya area. Copyright: Museo Nacional de Antropologa(Click on image to enlarge), Pic 2: Feathered Serpent at Teotihuacan. [45][46] The deity has been featured as a character in the manga and anime series Yu-Gi-Oh! In Aztec times (14th through 16th centuries) Quetzalcatl was revered as the patron of priests, the inventor of the calendar and of books, and the protector of goldsmiths and other craftsmen; he was also identified with the planet Venus. limitless performance 4935 mcconnell ave 90066,